Te Ao Māori Resources

In recognition that Māori disproportionately experience negative health, education and social outcomes, it is imperative that Māori are able to access the social and health services.  In order to be able to effectively engage and work with Māori, providers of services are encouraged to build their knowledge of Te Ao Māori or the worldview of Māori.  This includes needing to understand Te Tiriti o Waitangi, New Zealand and local history and the impact of colonisation (which has contributed to the negative outcomes Māori experience), the local iwi and hapu in the Western Bay of Plenty and Māori frameworks for the delivery of services.

Te Tiriti o Waitangi-Treaty of Waitangi  

Community organisations engaging with the Treaty of Waitangi
Resource published in 2016 by Treaty Resource Centre.

Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand – The Treaty of Waitangi
This section of Te Ara provides a comprehensive look at the Treaty of Waitangi, including its history, principles, the Waitangi tribunal and the settlement process. It also includes a blog post and the words of the Treaty.

NZHistory – Treaty of Waitangi
NZ History provides a range of resources about the Treaty of Waitangi and Waitangi Day. The site offers ideas for use within the classroom, a media gallery and a Treaty timeline.

Treaty Resource Centre – He Puna Mātauranga o Te Tiriti
Working with organisations wherever they are on the Treaty journey.

Book: Treaty of Waitangi: Past and Present by Ruth Naumann

Treaty and Cultural Competency Training


Treaty of Waitangi Workshops in Disability Services
Targeted at community groups, service providers and government agencies to educate, inform and bring about awareness and understanding around Treaty issues and disabled Maori (whānau hauā).

Treaty of Waitangi and cultural competence course
A brief introduction to the Treaty of Waitangi and to the related topic of cultural competence. It is designed as staff training for organisations in the health sector but is relevant to other sectors as well.

Foundation Course in Cultural Competency (online)
To build your understanding of cultural competency and health literacy in New Zealand, with a focus on improving Māori health outcomes. The multimedia, interactive course is a voluntary programme and is spread across four modules and is available for all people working in the health sector. Each training module is supported by videos, video transcripts, additional reading resources and library references.

Cultural Safety Training
if your organisation is interested in cultural safety training please contact SociaLink on info@socialink.org.nz


Run training in Cultural Competency and in the Treaty of Waitangi. See http://www.awawhenua.co.nz/t reaty-of-waitangixidc83013.html

021 026 0026
290 Old Taupo Road, Rotorua.

Te Reo Māori courses


History of Tauranga Moana



Story: Tauranga Moana
Te Ara overview of history of Tauranga, written by Te Awanuiārangi Black.

List of books on local history
Those interested in the History of Tauranga and the Western Bay of Plenty will find this list of books useful.

Tauranga Memories
Tauranga Library website with extensive local history information

Video: Tauranga moana elders tell the history of Mauao Mountain
3 part series made by Waka Huia TVNZ on You Tube 

Book: Victory At Gate Pa? The Battle of Pukehinahina – Gate Pa: 1864 by Buddy Mikaere & Cliff Simons

Local Ngā Iwi (tribal), Ngā Hapū (subtribes)

The following are a list of WBOP’s local iwi and hapu. Its important to note that many Māori living in Tauranga moana are from iwi and hapu in other parts of New Zealand Aotearoa. Download the maps and details here.

What is a Kaupapa Māori service?

A Kaupapa Māori approach seeks positive outcomes for the collective of the whānau, hapū (subtribe) and iwi (tribal groupings). It is a holistic approach that asserts Māori language and cultural values. The recognition of Māori epistemologies, rights and practices of how Māori view the world is fundamental to the survival of Māori indigenous identity. The need to raise a critical voice and action Māori concerns in regards to Te Tiriti o Waitangi is pertinent to Kaupapa Māori, especially when resources are consistently diminishing.

What does Whānau Ora mean?

In its simplest term, the Māori definition of whānau means ‘family’ and ‘Ora’ means wellness, so Whānau Ora is referred to as’ Family wellness.

The Whānau Ora approach focuses on building strong trusting relationships, alongside whānau, to facilitate long term sustainable and positive outcomes. There is good evidence of strength-based approaches and practices that focuses on self-determination.

Whānau Ora will work in a range of ways, influenced by the approach the whānau chooses to take. Some whānau will want to come up with ways of improving their own lives and may want to work on this with a hapū, iwi or a non‐government organisation (NGO).

Other whānau will want to seek help from specialist Whānau Ora providers who will offer wrap-around services tailored to their needs. Whānau will have a practitioner or ‘navigator’ to work with them to identify their needs, help develop a plan to address those needs and broker their access to a range of health and social services.

Unlike traditional health and social supports, which tend to assist individual family members; whānau ora differs by working with whānau as a whole. The idea of working as a whole, sits at the heart of Māori tikanga (values).

Māori Health Models

Source: Ministry of Health – Manatū Hauora

Te Whare Tapa Wha

One model for understanding Māori health is the concept of ‘te whare tapa whā’ – the four cornerstones (or sides) of Māori health:

  • Taha tinana (physical health)
  • Taha wairua (spiritual health)
  • Taha whānau (family health)
  • Taha hinengaro (mental health)

Should one of the four dimensions be missing or in some way damaged, a person, or a collective may become ‘unbalanced’ and subsequently unwell. For many Māori modern health services lack recognition of taha wairua (the spiritual dimension). In a traditional Māori approach, the inclusion of the wairua, the role of the whānau (family) and the balance of the hinengaro (mind) are as important as the physical manifestations of illness. For more in-depth information see link above.

Te Wheke

The concept of Te Wheke, the octopus, is to define family health. The head of the octopus represents te whānau, the eyes of the octopus as waiora (total wellbeing for the individual and family) and each of the eight tentacles representing a specific dimension of health. The dimensions are interwoven and this represents the close relationship of the tentacles.

Te whānau – the family
Waiora – total wellbeing for the individual and family
Wairuatanga – spirituality
Hinengaro – the mind
Taha tinana – physical wellbeing
Whanaungatanga – extended family
Mauri – life force in people and objects
Mana ake – unique identity of individuals and family
Hā a koro ma, a kui ma – breath of life from forbearers
Whatumanawa – the open and healthy expression of emotion


Te Pae Mahutonga
Te Pae Mahutonga (Southern Cross Star Constellation) brings together elements of modern health promotion. The four central stars of the Southern Cross represent four key tasks of health promotion:

  • Mauriora (cultural identity)
  • Waiora (physical environment)
  • Toiora (healthy lifestyles)
  • Te Oranga (participation in society)


The two pointers represent Ngā Manukura (community leadership) and Te Mana Whakahaere (autonomy).